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Natural convection inside a cavity

Natural convection simulation

Natural convection simulation

This application illustrates the use of the Boussinesq approximation. A cavity is heated at the bottom. The elevation of the temperature then decreases the density. As the gravity is taken into account, the fluid at the top of the cavity, that is then heavier, goes down while the fluid at the bottom, lighter, goes up. A vortex is then created inside the cavity (arrows are added on the figure just to represent the direction of the flow).